The following terminology is used both here and in sap-rge.

The code implementing Prolog's built-in predicates, plus support code such as memory management needed for running Prolog.
Runtime Kernel
Provides only the core set of built-in predicates.
Extended Runtime Kernel
An add-on product. It provides the core set of built-in predicates, and in addition allows the compiler and dynamic foreign language interface to be used in runtime systems.
Development Kernel
Provides the facilities of the Runtime Kernel, plus additional built-in predicates, the compiler, the debugger, and so on.
runtime system
A Prolog application that has been linked with the Runtime Kernel; intended for delivery to end-users.
stand-alone program
A Prolog program that has been linked with the Development Kernel; an extended version of the Development System.
static linking
Linking a Prolog program to either the Development Kernel or the Runtime Kernel.